Secondary hypertension

Renal hypertension

Representatives of secondary hypertension is renal hypertension, due to renal disease by raising blood pressure, renal hypertension and secondary hypertension incidence in the highest and most difficult to cure.

The function of kidneys is to filter blood and remove excess material to be excreted in the urine, in addition to secreting hormone function.

The function of kidneys is to filter blood and remove excess material to be excreted in the urine, in addition to secreting hormone function.

Kidney nephritis and obstacles. When von with impaired kidney function, will be known as Renin in the blood (Renin) increased secretions. This substance just very small amounts can raise blood pressure. Therefore, patients with renal hypertension, antihypertensive, still do not have access to good effect.

At this point, suffering from nephritis kidney treatment and, if necessary, surgery to remove diseased kidneys in order to lower blood pressure.

Nephritis can be divided into acute and chronic. All of them have a close relationship and high blood pressure.

Causes of acute nephritis and hypertension-induced acute kidney injury, is still not fully clear. However, sometimes caused by Streptococcus infection. In addition, the tonsils may also cause acute nephritis.

When mild symptoms, most patients feel nothing, accept the urine test and learned that she had nephritis. However, usually swollen, puffy eye insurance in particular is more notable, plus headaches, shortness of breath, decreased urine output, sometimes there is blood in the urine. So, you should do a urine check research to determine the presence of protein in urine and blood cell increase, so do the right diagnosis and treatment. But this time, systolic pressure and diastolic pressure is higher than usual.

Chronic nephritis and hypertension

Symptoms of chronic nephritis. Sometimes caused by acute nephritis did not completely cure. Plenty of repeat disease manifestations of acute Glomerulonephritis symptoms; some just bloated, containing protein in the urine increases without other symptoms, but merely has high blood pressure, and no oliguria, swelling and other symptoms of Glomerulonephritis.

Mild chronic nephritis, swelling of the face is not clear. However, their blood pressure is higher than usual, so will have symptoms of heart palpitations or shortness.

People suffering from hypertension due to chronic nephritis, without a proper diagnosis and treatment, condition deteriorated sharply, likely to cause swelling, breathing difficulties, anemia, uremia, conditions such as heart failure, cerebral hemorrhage.

Essential hypertension

1, genetic problems

After many years of animal experiments and survey the crowd, already confirmed that genetic factors are important risk factors in primary hypertension.

1959 Japan Okan OTO and Aoki has begun to develop spontaneously hypertensive rats, elevated blood pressure is stable from the 6th generation to 180 mm column, later generations of 100% hypertension, complications and cause hypertension similar to human. Prove that genetic factors influence on etiology of hypertension occurred significantly.

Many studies show that, the father and (or) the mother has high blood pressure, the prevalence rate of hypertension than their parents of their children are normal blood pressure high, relatives of hypertension patients

Disease rates higher than normal blood pressure prevalence of relatives.

Studies have shown, hypertension in twin 63%~69% for population genetic, prompted at least twins crowd, genetic factors on blood pressure than environmental factors are more important.

So far, about what is single gene with essential hypertension, is Polygenic, or both of the problems under study. Most people think that and more on the development of essential hypertension gene.

This elevated blood pressure as the main clinical manifestation and etiology is not clear the independence of disease, it is called primary hypertension, also called high blood pressure.
The physical characteristics of

Hypertensive patients and close genetic relationship, it can be inferred from the above statistics.

As for patients with high blood pressure were suddenly kind of physique is usually face broad, short, Ruddy neck, that is, the physical fitness of obese people.

However, with this Constitution does not represent essential hypertension. Because obese people are many, but not all high blood pressure, is still very low. On the other hand, lean figure who has a lot of high blood pressure.

Studies have found that obesity prevalence of hypertension in 2-6 times that of non-obese people.

In addition, the prospective study found that obese 60 by 11-15 PEI development for high blood pressure, overweight and formation of the effect on blood pressure and hypertension) • children and adolescents that already exists.

Therefore, we can clear: being overweight or obese is a risk factor for hypertension.


Is smaller than a red blood cell and platelet of unshaped pieces of cytoplasm, 150,000 ~30 per 1 cubic mm of blood platelets. It has the function of bleeding and thrombosis.

The nature of blood

Plasma is the liquid component of blood, is slightly water solution, by various proteins such as serum and strong Shirahara, and other components.

Serum ingredient is mostly water. In addition, glue-like proteins and salts of 8.5 GUI, as well as fats and glucose, and so on. It also contain waste such as urine-cable.

The function of blood

Blood has the following main functions:

(1) in the lungs and oxygen, it is delivered to tissues and cells.

(2) the absorption and digestion of nutrition, to transport it to tissues and cells in order to supply

(3) accept waste from cells and tissues, and excreted. Gas excluded from the lungs, and other waste is excluded from the kidneys.

(4) the Leukocyte Phagocytic function of foreign bodies in the blood, and the antibodies in the serum may prevent bacterial infection.

(5) transport hormones, regulate the function of various organs.

(6) the function of blood coagulation and anticoagulation in order to achieve the objective of Hemostatic and anticoagulant.

(7) the blood cells secreting part of the rights issue of polypeptide growth factors involved in the regulation of cell reproduction and differentiation.

Constancy of blood

If changes in the external environment, hydrogen in the blood gang Zi, and enzymes, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, salts and substances such as oxygen content is not changed, which is called the constant of the blood. If constancy of blood lost, the body will produce all sorts of obstacles.

Blood components

Blood circulation throughout the body, the oxygen and nutrients needed to supply the body and will produce carbon dioxide and wastes away. And fighting to keep the body healthy and disease.

Some components in the blood, can make the views of blood coagulation does not occur in the body. However, once outside the blood vessels, will lose liquidity, coagulation and thrombosis.

This is because there is a liquid substance called Fibrinogen in the blood out of the blood vessels. It becomes insoluble substance makes blood clotting. With other proteins of Fibrinogen and serum known as the liquid component of blood, or plasma.

Later said red cells, white cells, platelets, also called formed elements of the blood cells.

1 blood cell and serum

Observed in the outflow of blood in vitro glass containers, she found blood quickly into gel State.

After 5-15 minutes, you can see the clear liquid, this time, blood clots will be gradually reduced. And this narrow blood clots are blood cells, transparent liquid is serum.

2. red blood cells

RBC is one of the formed elements of the blood, red blood cell is a cell without a nucleus, a double concave disc-shaped, it has the function of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide.

How much do as to the number of red blood cells in the human body, according to statistics, in 1 cubic millimeter of blood, about 5 million red blood cells, and they are free.

Red blood cells are mainly manufactured in the bone marrow, the destruction of red blood cells in the liver of aging. Blood is red, was as a result of red blood cells contain hemoglobin, which will combine with oxygen and will deliver oxygen to the body.

If the blood-forming organs diseases or bleeding. Such as pernicious anemia, acute infectious diseases, will reduce the number of red blood cells. In the thin air of the Highlands, will increase the number of red blood cells.

3. white blood cells is the nucleus of the cell. It had swallowed foreign body, function to prevent bacterial invasion. White blood cells than red blood cells, the number of less is more red blood cells. In a cubic millimeter of blood, white blood cells concentration 6000~8000.

White blood cells are like the Amoeba, deformation and movement all the time. Sometimes it would go beyond the capillaries, stretching its fake enough to capture bacteria and digested by bacteria, which is known as leukocytes phagocytosis. Manufacture of organs of the white blood cells are bone marrow and lymph nodes. White blood cells observed under the microscope, according to white blood cells form will it be divided into three categories. However, calls white blood cells. If some part of axillary, increase in the number of white blood cells in the blood, in order to prevent the spread of inflammation, inflammation controls, white blood cell count King returns to normal levels. However, suffering from typhoid, measles and other diseases, the Mahi will reduce the number of white blood cells.

How to prevent high blood pressure

Hypertension has been troubled many crowd of chronic disease, in today social in the, due to life habits of not health, plus on personal health problem of ignored, some chronic disease has quietly of into has we of side, hypertension is which one of, also of hypertension has many complications, which most serious of certainly is we TV Shang see of brain vascular rupture injury, but he also has other against great of complications, for example on kidney, important organ of injury also not ignored, Points on a daily basisto prevent this type of high blood pressure, but very effective, the next, Iwill explain to you my little preventive steps, I hope you like it.

Reduce salt intake
Too of intake salt, will led to vascular contraction ban generalized tonic-clonic, blood pressure increased, long-term keep this diet State, back thing have blood pressure long-term in contraction State, such will led to blood pressure continued increased, even to Shi stop excessive salt of intake, blood pressure also cannot returned to normal of State has, also has salt in is rich in of sodium intake too much, extremely easy induced cardiovascular disease, on life quality caused serious of effect; warm small tips: daily salt of intake volume best less than 4g, don’t more eat is rich in salt of food, especially instant noodles.
How to prevent high blood pressure
Amount of protein supplement
Protein inside is rich in some effective of components, they on regulation blood pressure has must of role, while also can promote sodium ion of excretion, avoid its continued on vascular caused contraction role, protection vascular wall, addition protein also is cell metabolism of important components, can promote new cell of generated, replacement, will its vascular of elastic, anyway benefits more Ah, certainly don’t excessive intake, because some protein in also is sweat high of cholesterol of, will on vascular caused must of damage of Oh ; Warm Tip: proper eating eggs,fish, such as milk proteins, to prevent high blood pressure, cardiovasculardisease can help.
How to prevent high blood pressure
Limiting fat intake
High fat of food on artery vascular has must of damage role, led to arteriosclerosis, excessive of fat intake, will makes body blood stick consistency increased, fat metabolism balance upset, raised some column heart brain vascular disease, while also will on liver kidney metabolism caused great of burden, long-term down not conducive to hypertension of prevention; warm small tips: limit fat intake of while also have limit high cholesterol food of too intake Oh
How to prevent high blood pressure
Eat more potassiumrich foods
Edible is rich in potassium of food, can and body of sodium for replacement, increased sodium of discharge, to reduced sodium on cardiovascular of injury role, while potassium also has other of effect, for example maintained body pH of balance, keep body maintained enough of penetration pressure, also has fill potassium can makes promote uric acid of dissolved, reduced uric acid of content, prevention because uric acid and produced of stone; warm small tips: watermelon, Apple, containing potassium rich, but fill potassium also should moderate, don’t to row sodium too of fill potassium, This will alsocause damage to the body.
How to prevent high blood pressure
Drink less soda
Carbonate beverage in contains of heat special of high, easy caused body of obesity, makes body of lipid increased, damage vascular, makes vascular of elastic reduced, telescopic sex declined, to improve has patient hypertension of risk, addition carbonate beverage zhihou also contains caffeine, material, on people has into hidden, while on people of some organ caused must of against; warm small tips: more drink water conducive to prevention hypertension of occurred Oh.
How to prevent high blood pressure
Before going to bed not eating
Sleep Qian eating extremely easy caused body of obesity, obesity zhihou body of lipid will increased, artery vascular of elastic will reduced, heart pressure increased, while liver kidney load aggravated, will increased patient hypertension of risk, while vascular elastic reduced, will makes vascular became crisp and has rupture, in mood excited of situation Xia, extremely easy for pressure suddenly increased caused rupture, endanger life; warm small tips: morning, Chinese must have eat or on gastrointestinal road adverse, dinner appropriate reduction volume, sleep Qian not snack.
How to prevent high blood pressure
Scientific weight loss
Weight loss is prevention hypertension a is good of means, but weight loss also needed about science, like excessive diet, eat weight loss drug this type of weight loss is not desirable of, not on on prevention hypertension no more big of help, also has on body caused other of damage, special of gastrointestinal road of damage, and weight loss drug of some side effects is not forecast of, can not eat on not eat; warm small tips: can through law of diet, sports exercise to reached weight loss of effect Oh
How to prevent high blood pressure
Moderate exercise
Moderate of movement can promote body blood cycle, increased body of resistance, while also can increased vascular heart of flexible sex, consumption body extra of heat, fat, reached weight loss of effect, while also can reduced blood in of lipid content, but once movement excessive, effect is will backfired, reality among has many because movement excessive syncope shock crisis life of example, I on not all for example has; warm small tips: don’t Sun Xia movement, movement Hou slowly walking, don’t immediately sat down rest.
How to prevent high blood pressure
Reducing psychological stress
People in the State, depressed mood, anxiety, and can make some blood vessels in a State of contraction, in the anxiety at the same time, thebody‘s endocrine disorders can occur, this would cause certain damage tocardiovascular, increased risk of developing hypertension; warm Tip: travelto relax, sleep ease fatigue.
How to prevent high blood pressure
Do not smoke and drink
Smoke in contains many harmful of carcinogenic material, which nicotine is which a, he will stimulus heart vascular, makes its occurred contraction, makes blood pressure increased, long-term down blood pressure on easily declined has, addition it also will led to atherosclerosis of formed, aggravated has hypertension of symptoms, excessive of drinking also will makes artery occurred hardening, also will increased body of lipid content, increased has hypertension sick of risk chances; warm small tips: away from bad life habits, on prevention hypertension, disease is is has help of Oh

Preventing high blood pressure tips

High blood pressure is a serious of important diseases affecting humanhealth, especially for older adults, high blood pressure once the attack maybe lifethreatening. However, the master of the onset of high blood pressure, attention in daily life, I would like to prevent high blood pressure it would not be difficult.

Hypertension causes details
Genetic factors
About half of patients have a family history of hypertension.
Environmental factors
Almost all diseases are closely associated with the environment, and high blood pressure are no exception.
(1) weight: high incidence of obesity.
(2) the birth control pill.
(3) sleep apneahypopnea syndrome.
(4) age: trends in prevalence increased with age, high incidence of personsover the age of 40.
(5) diet: intake of salt, high incidence of high blood pressure, considersalt <2g/, almost no hypertension; 3-4g/day 3%,4-15g/day incidence ofhypertension, incidence incidence 33.15%,>20G/30%.
Preventing high blood pressure alert error
High salt diet
Put salt in the dish can indeed make the taste buds to satisfy, especiallyof young people like to eat in Sichuan hot pot, pickled vegetables contain a lot of salt, too much salt can lead to adverse physiological reactions andcan cause certain diseases, especially hypertension. This is because too many sodium ions in the salt is absorbed into the blood, sodium and waterretention, leading to increased blood volume, blood pressure, and can alsocause edema of vascular smooth muscle cells, blood vessel lumen narrowing,also can cause blood pressure to rise. Why blood pressure rises when water pipe pressure constant, blocking half of faucet (lumen narrowing), water pressure increases, the water in the pipes will erupt from the inside out.
From the perspective of prevention and treatment of hypertension, the dailysalt intake should be what is best? Most medical studies suggest that idealintake of 1.5~2.3 g/day, but the target is not realistic. World Health Organization adult salt intake < 5 g/day of hypertension in China inaccordance with China‘s national conditions and puts daily intakes < 6g/day.


Excessive alcohol consumption
Drink less than 5 cents a day, can be eliminated from the body. Many young people, like 35 friends to get together for dinner, bars. Daily drinking anda large amount of time, can increase cardiac contractility, increasedweight, and other changes in the body, a long period of time, can causeliver and brain lesions.
No high blood pressure people to drink less, not more than five a day, high blood pressure blood pressure is not controlled to drink is appropriate.
Meditationa lack of physical activity to stay up with stress
Modern office workers of movement is more and more limited, most of the daysitting in a Chair for a long time, and Chengdu, like to play mahjong;teenagers like the Internet; out car, putting a lot of time at the seat,very little physical activity. Physical impairment, and the accumulation offat, weight gain, blood pressure significantly improve.
Psychological pressure and long are two best friends, often accompanied byhand in hand. Reasons for staying up late is working overtime and recreationmaintain a high degree of psychological pressure, also can make blood pressure soaring.
Overweight and obesity
Avoid overweight and obesity is not only for aesthetic reasons, obesity,especially abdominal Central obesity a lot of fat accumulation, is an important cause of high blood pressure and heart disease. Fat in contains large on body harmful of material, damage cardiovascular and body important organ, is raised hypertension of important reasons, now increasingly more of obesity, especially child, is hypertension and cardiovascular disease produced of important based, often is excessive nutrition, high fat diet, and lack movement of consequences, obesity never is health of performance, now has is a serious of public health problem, must from when and good of lifestyle do up.
And out to prevent hypertension
To maintain ease, avoiding and exultation. In the mood swings, when there is a big or great sorrow and sympathetic nervous excitement, rapid heartbeat,increased peripheral vascular resistance, diastolic pressure increased, sorepeatedly elevated blood pressure, it can cause disease. This requires theaged failing to calm face not liking things, would show restraint. Learn torelease the bitter way, such as talking with family members, old friends,express your ideas and requirements each when you desire to lose his temper,they left the scene, to do other things, or change the subject, distraction,so that angry complaints are addressed.
To regular life. For older adults, a regular life is very important toprevent hypertension. First of all older people alternate work with rest,moderation of work and rest. Keep 7-9 hours a day sleeping and 1-2 hours of sports. Weak tea, not smoking, drinking less alcohol use (drinking a small amount of white wine). Ingredient nicotine in cigarettes can be madesympathetic, peripheral vasoconstriction and blood pressure rise; wineingredients in alcohol impaired cardiac diastolic function, atheroscleroticvascular walls, and prone to high blood pressure.
Diet should be supplemented with adequate nutrition for the elderly withoutprinciple of obesity, because obesity can lead to elevated blood pressure,increases the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.Weekday to avoid overeating, dominated by light, try to eat or not to eatfat Atsumi. To control the amount of salt when cooking, amount to 4~6 gramsper day is advisable. Supplements of calciumrich foods such as milk,shrimp, carrots, honey, calcium has the effect of lowering blood pressure.Obese older people, to stick to diet and exercise, and not blindly takingmedicine, so as to avoid side effects.
Take part in sports. Practice shows that appropriate participation insports, shujin active, unblocked blood, has certain effect on the preventionof hypertension. According to their own situation and conditions of thesurrounding environment, choose brisk walking, jogging, Tai Chi, fencing,swimming, table tennis and so on. Do each exercise, should pay attention to the amount of exercise, step by step, persevere, to bear fruit.
Often listening to music. The beautiful music, can make people happy,relaxing the brain, so as to avoid excessive tension that raise blood pressure, prevent hypertension.

What is systolic pressure and the diastolic pressure

Cardiac cycle is the rhythm of role play of the heart as a pump, this pumpcan be divided into two. One is to send the blood to the body, the leftatrium and the left ventricle is responsible for; the other is all parts of the body with low oxygen content of venous return of blood to the lungsfunction, the right atrium and the right ventricle is responsible for.


In other words, the left atrium and the left ventricle is responsible forthe blood, while the right atrium and the right ventricle is responsible forvenous blood.


The blood from the lungs into the Pulmonary veins, into the left atrium,then flow into the left ventricle. When the left ventricle is filled withblood, heart contraction, blood enter the aorta, at which point the highestblood, called the systolic pressure.


After the blood from the left ventricle into the aorta, the heart continues to store blood from the lungs in the left ventricle, right ventricle havestarted stockpiling by various parts of the body back into the blood. So,when body parts stored in the blood when the heart, ventricular diastolicblood pressure the lowest known as diastolic blood pressure.


However, the body‘s blood pressure is not constant, but always in change,but blood pressure is normal and not normal people, the magnitude of changeis different.


Changes in blood pressure like this, sometimes high blood pressure occurs,sometimes the State of low blood pressure can occur.

Function of the heart and pulse rate

Play the role of pumping of the heart, send the blood to various parts of the body, and is the channel of the circulation of the blood and blood vessels.


The pumping function of the heart is not a haphazard operation, but by acertain rhythm of repeated systolic and diastolic. Responsible formaintaining a regular rhythm of the heart nerve known as vegetative, isdivided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous


Sympathetic roles is to make the contraction and relaxation of the heart‘srhythm to accelerate, and parasympathetic reduction carried out andcoordinated in order to maintain the two heart operations.


Rhythm of contraction and relaxation of the heart is divided into systolic,diastolic, and Jin General called the cardiac cycle. 60-70 cycles per minuteadult men, adult female 70-80 cycles per minute.


Cardiac output blood flow varies depending on the State of the body, whilethe body is at rest, about 5 litres per minute.


Each contraction of the heart 1 (1 cycle) the outputs of blood volume, 60~80ml, and wave to convey to blood vessels, but flexible blood vessels alsohave temporary expansion. When volatility through the blood vessels, thevessels will revert to the original state.


In other words, the blood vessels are according to the rhythm of the heart(pulse), and expansion and contraction.


The vasomotor is blood to blood vessels changes in blood pressure, it will be as the heart beats, rise or fall according to a rhythm.


This a certain rhythm of blood pressure and pulse pressure. If in vitro withfinger touch pulse pressure is called pulse.

Heart bypass (coronary circulation)

We have described in the preceding paragraphs, the heart is the center ofcirculation, and pumping function.


However, to make the heart maintain normal operation, it requires energy.And for the supply of such energy, to transport nutrients and oxygen to theheart, is the cardiac blood flow path, or the coronary circulation.


The self-contained heart circulation and systemic branch of coronary arteryis responsible for. Obviously, the heart itself although it has a lot ofblood, but unable to obtain energy from the cavity of the heart‘s bloodsupply depends on coronary artery. If necrosis of myocardial ischemia incoronary artery obstruction, it is called a myocardial infarction, which isone of the major complications of high blood pressure.

The pulmonary circulation (small circulation)

Preceding cycle (cycle), whose main function is to transport nutrients andoxygen to the body, and unnecessary carbon dioxide emissions and waste, andtransported back to the lungs, into the pulmonary circulation.


The main function of the pulmonary circulation, is in the systemiccirculation is unnecessary carbon dioxide and wastescontaminated blood,transported to the lungs, removing excess carbon dioxide, oxygen, and keepthe blood pH of moderately.


Venous blood from the body to the heart, into the right atrium, then fromthe right atrium into the right ventricle and was sent from there names forthe pulmonary blood vessels. Pulmonary artery is divided into two roads onthe way. Stretch respectively to the left and right lung, and lung and intocapillaries.


The blood reach the lungs, releasing carbon dioxide, receiving oxygen,oxygenated blood through the Pulmonary veins into the left atrium from theleft atrium into the left ventricle, in accordance with the foregoing intocirculation.


So, according to a heart of cardiac pulmonary-‘ pulmonary venous bloodcirculation routes, known as pulmonary or lesser circulation.